The pedals in French organs developed later than those in Germany. They played only melody notes until the late s, when bass-sounding ranks of pipes were added. English organs did not get pedals until the middle s, more than a century after Bach and Handel. German n. Typically, the pedal is connected to the tuning screws via a spider-like system of metal rods. The timpanist must first disengage the clutch before using the pedal to tune the drum. When the desired pitch is achieved, he must reengage the clutch.
The drums most professional timpanists use have Dresden pedals. The balanced action system is sometimes called a floating pedal since there is no clutch holding the pedal in place. Timpani used by school bands and orchestras typically have balanced action pedals.
Many professionals also use timpani with balanced action pedals for gigs and outdoor performances because they tend to be more durable. When the player presses his toe forward, he frees the clutch from the post and the pedal moves freely. This system is much less common than the ratchet-clutch and balanced action systems.
Pedal timpani from which this information has been taken. When the bell effect raises the lower resonances of the closed tube, the lowest resonance is actually not used, being out of tune with the rest of the notes.
However, if the player's lips are vibrated at the pedal tone frequency, all the harmonics above it contribute and produce a tone at this pedal tone pitch. It is sometimes called a fictitious fundamental, but for the bass brass instruments, it is quite strong and useful. Brass Instrument Acoustics from which this extract has been taken. Davitt Moroney owns such an instrument Anonymous, possibly Florentine, c. He has written, " Traces of the wires are embedded in the keys. Rodney Myrvaagnes Early Keyboard Instruments from which an extract has been taken. Pedal Virginal. The German violinist and organist Nicolaus Bruhns , the son of an organist and on the organ a pupil of Buxtehude, is famously known for accompanying his violin playing on the organ pedals.
English, French m. Literary Terms and Definitions from which this extract has been taken. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests. It underwent pejoration to mean "ignorant," then "base" and finally "obscene," which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration, in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Finland or Pellimanni music. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, foreign dances including polka , mazurka , schottische , minuet and polska were popular throughout Finland.
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These led to a number of distinctively Finnish forms of these dances, including humppa and jenkka. These are collectively known as pelimanni music featuring fiddles, harmoniums and accordions. English, French f. Spanish, literally 'pinch', 'nip' or 'small bit' small spontaneous gestures, mimicries or whimsical movements employed by a dancer to heighten the effect of a dance.
The phrase is used in flamenco to describe actions which are spicy, saucy or flirtatious. Latin from Greek a small light shield used by the ancient Greeks and Romans, a shield-like motif in decorative art.
Its range lies between the ugal and the kantil. The Amazing Pencilina. A metronome marking of 88 beats per minute is equivalent to a string length of 18 inches. Pengling from which this extract has been taken. The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost.
The most common type has a moulded plastic mouthpiece attached to a cylindrical brass tube with six finger holes.
It is diatonic though accidentals can be played by half-covering holes, and is available in different sizes for almost every key. Sometimes it is played in the key a fourth above the tonic e. G for a D whistle. The most common key is D an octave above middle C and the fingering is standardly referred to as though for a D whistle.
It is a tin whistle, in the range of keys from A below middle C, down to D. The lower range requires this whistle to be increased in size. In skilled hands, it can also perform the traditional music of Ireland. It is essentially a vertical fipple flute. Tin Whistle Guide from which some of this material has been taken Low Whistle from which some of this material has been taken. French a boarding-house, a lodging-house with a fixed weekly or monthly rate in France or Italy. French one who is living as a boarder, paying a fixed weekly or monthly sum for board and lodging.
Greek an athletic contest of the ancient world combining five different exercises - jumping, running, throwing the discus, throwing the spear and wrestling. They formed part of the various games held in ancient Greece which were named for the centre in which they took place.
Music and singing competitions were not on the programme of the Olympic Games but they were a speciality of the Games at Delphi. Well before the appearance of sports competitions, musical competitions were organised in Delphi. These comprised singing accompanied by the cithara , flute solos or singing with flute accompaniment. Music and singing remained a feature of the Pythian Games even after the integration of sports competitions. Poetry and drama competitions also figured on the programme. The Olympic Games in Ancient Greece.
Pentatonic scales are very common and are found all over the world, including but not limited to the tuning of the Ethiopian krar and the Indonesian gamelan , the melodies of African-American spirituals, Celtic folk music and the music of French composer Claude Debussy. Pentatonic Scales for more information Pentatonic scale from which the introduction has been taken. Dutch, German pentatonic for example, pentatonische Skala German: pentatonic scale , pentatonische toonladder Dutch: pentatonic scale.
The term has sometimes been used in a modern sense to describe the appearance of the sides of buildings with painted advertising. Often they are painted over with newer ads and the paint wears away to reveal the older layers. Pentimento from which some of this entry has been taken.
Spanish m. Greek a rich robe or shawl worn by women in ancient Greece, hanging in folds and sometimes drawn over the head. The Pepys MS is so-called because it was numbered among the diarist's books; he described it as containing 'monkish music of Edward IV's time. The MS was probably completed some time after , because it refers to the composer Hawte as 'Knight' and 'Sir William Hawte', and he was knighted in that year.
The Pepys and Ritson Manuscripts from which this information has been taken. Latin, literally 'by heads' a division of a legacy, a payment, a fine, etc. Kramer noted that "performers and listeners use the information in a composition to understand where beats fall and how strongly accented they are, but we do not literally hear beats.go here
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We experience them - by means of mental processing of information We react physically and emotionally to meter, but we do not literally sense it with our eardrums". French a breed of horse resembling a lightly-built cart-horse from the le Perche region of Normandy, France. Latin, 'by the court' where the court gives an order or decision on the whole operating as a single body without any particular judge being the author.
Perkussionsinstrument s. Some have definite pitch while others have an indefinite pitch. Where the pitch of percussion instruments can be determined this will be by a complex set of variables depending on the dimensions and material of the instrument itself. For example, the pitch of a drum is determined by the size and thickness of the drum head, the tension, and to some extent the depth of the body.
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The pitch of a xylophone tone bar is determined by the material's density and flexibility, length and thickness, and shape. A xylophone bar is also normally amplified by a tuned resonator set underneath. Italian morendo Italian , diminuendo Italian , sich verlierend German , verebbend German , en se perdant French. French to lose, to get out of, to break, to mislay, to forget date, name , to shed fur , to waste money , to miss an event. French hidden away, out of sight, hidden but on the watch a hidden sentry , lying in ambush.